News and Research 231

North Macedonia: Education Ministry: Proposed reforms are in line with World Bank recommendations..

COVID-19 Response: Europe & Central Asia: Tertiary Education |  Lucia Brajkovic, Assel Mukhametzhanova, Denis Nikolaev, Polina Zavalina | This Note offers recommendations in 11 key areas to policy makers at the national, regional and institutional level on how to address the crisis using lessons learned so far and start preparation towards the post-pandemic era of tertiary education

School Management, Grants, and Test Scores: Experimental Evidence from Mexico | Rafael De Hoyos et al | The study finds that: cash grant had no impact on the student’s test scores or the management capacity of school principals; managerial training improved school principals’ managerial capacity but had no impact on students’ test scores; and combination of cash grants and managerial training amplified the effect on the school principals’ managerial capacity and had a positive but statistically insignificant impact on students’ test scores.

Do Large-Scale Student Assessments Really Capture Cognitive Skills? | Rafael de Hoyos, Ricardo Estrada | Primary school test scores are a strong predictor of secondary education outcomes. Secondary school test scores predict university enrollment and hourly wages.

Contrasting Experiences: Understanding the Longer-Term Impact of Improving Access to Pre-Primary Education in Rural Indonesia | Amer Hasan et al | Enrollment rates and enrollment duration in preprimary education increased.

England Appoints Education Recovery Commissioner | In order to address learning loss and learning gaps resulting from school closures during the coronavirus pandemic, England’s Prime Minister and Secretary of Education have appointed Sir Kevan Collins to the newly created role of Education Recovery Commissioner. A former teacher of 30 years, Sir Kevan has served as a Director of Children’s Services and most recently as Chief Executive of the Education Endowment Foundation. As Education Recovery Commissioner, he will be responsible for addressing issues such as curriculum content and quantity of teaching time in the coming months, to ensure the impact the pandemic has had on learning is addressed as quickly and comprehensively as possible. Earlier this month the Prime Minister committed to an additional £300 million (US$410 million) for tutoring programs, building on last year’s £1 billion (US$1.4 billion) Covid Catch Up fund, as well as potential plans for summer schools developed in partnership with the education sector.

Covid could cost children £350bn in earnings due to lost learning | Report says children repeating a year of school should be considered as part of radical catch-up efforts | IFS said other options could also include the use of large-scale tuition in the summer and extended hours to make up for the lost classroom time | Today’s children face losing £350bn in lifetime earnings unless the UK’s governments invest in radical catch-up efforts when the pandemic is over.

What’s Next for Schools | Balancing the Costs of School Closures Against COVID-19 Health Risks | A project of the Joint Economic Committee – Republicans

UNICEF: Schools closure leaves over 50,000 Georgian children without education

Getting to Net Zero: Why Education and Analytical Skills are Key to Reaching Europe’s Goals | … literacy remains a challenge. Even in advanced countries, functional literacy is less than what many might think, especially for those with intergenerational disadvantage. They might be able to read words but not process the underlying concepts. And literacy now must be a concept that extends beyond reading and numbers. It must include civic, social and science literacy, and in this context this includes environmental literacy…

Building an Integrated Data System: Lessons from Estonia

Math, science, and reading scores of Turkish adolescents increased following the Syrian refugee influx. The increase in test scores mostly comes from the lower half of the test score distribution and from native adolescents with lower maternal education. The labor market forces that emerged in the aftermath of the refugee crisis have led native adolescents, who would normally perform worse in school, to take their high school education more seriously.

Now published in an issue: The Role of Education in Mitigating Automation’s Effect on Wage Inequality | Raja Bentaouet Kattan, Kevin Macdonald, Harry Anthony Patrinos | LABOUR 35(1) March 2021: 79-104 | Education could reduce automation’s marginal effect on the wage gap between lower‐ and higher‐skilled labor by up to 3 percentage points. Education policies that promote automation‐complementing skill formation would reduce the need for costly labor market and wealth redistribution interventions later in life.

On tutoring:

Impact of the Poland Education Reforms

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In 1997 the Government set the following objectives for the education system: raising educational attainment; ensuring equal opportunities; and improvement in the quality of education. A comprehensive reform was designed, which covered the structure of the system, assessment, supervision, and school governance. A recent evaluation – The Impact of Compulsory Schooling on Hourly Wage: Evidence From the 1999 Education Reform in Poland by Liwiński (2021) – assesses the wage impact of the extension of compulsory schooling.

In 1999, an education reform was implemented in Poland which added 1 year to the vocational education path. The study finds that one additional year of general education has led to a 13% increase in the hourly wages of individuals who completed basic vocational schools. This may be because the extension of compulsory schooling in Poland affected individuals with relatively low general skills and abilities.

Jakubowski et al. (2016) argue that the reform had a positive impact on PISA scores. This reform allowed Poland to move from below the OECD average in 2000 to ninth in the world in 2006. This improvement was mainly due to better scores obtained by students of basic vocational schools, whose reading test scores increased by 28% between 2000 and 2003. The improvement in PISA was primarily due to the improved performance of the least able students and, in particular, those attending basic vocational schools. Liwiński (2021) argues that the reform is compensatory nature since it results in a reduction in the inequality of educational outcomes and a decrease in wage differentials. The 1999 reform created a system that imparted the skills needed to succeed in the labor market. Therefore, the positive wage effect may be attributed to the extra year of general education that was added to the basic vocational track.