Early childhood education in Mongolia – who is still excluded?  International Children’s Day is celebrated in Mongolia as an official holiday. I could see that it provided an opportunity to reflect on the country’s commitment to create opportunities for its children to thrive and realize their full potential in school and adult life. Nowhere is this commitment more evident than in the education sector. With near-universal access to basic education achieved, legislation and government policy now calls for the expansion of early childhood education (ECE) services to cover every child in the country…aa01

Mongolia: A Good Start in Life Begins with Quality Primary Education  Mongolia’s far-flung and low-density communities demand different solutions for reaching children with quality primary education. A World Bank project introduced several innovations well suited to the unique needs of herder communities. Effectiveness of the programs is evidenced by reduced school drop-outs, better learning results of children, and increased support of parents and the community…

Let the Man Do His Job! It’s hard to be a government minister in a country where resources are scarce. Don’t make it worse…

Access to Elite Education, Wage Premium, and Social Mobility: The Truth and Illusion of China’s College Entrance Exam  This paper studies the returns to elite education and their implications on elite formation and social mobility, exploiting an open elite education recruitment system – China’s College Entrance Exam. We conduct annual national surveys of around 40,000 college graduates during 2010-2015 to collect their performance at the entrance exam, job outcomes, and other individual characteristics. Exploiting a discontinuity in the probability of attending elite universities around the cutoff scores, we find a sizable wage premium of elite education. However, access to elite education does not promise one’s entry into the elite class (measured by occupation, industry and other non-wage benefits) but parents’ elite status does. Access to elite education also does not alter the intergenerational link between parents’ status and children’s status. The wage premium appears more consistent with the signaling mechanism of elite education than the role of human capital or social networks…

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